Depression: Symptoms, causes and treatments

Depression: Symptoms, causes and treatments

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Depression, also known as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is a mental illness characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, and a negative impact on daily life.

Symptoms of Depression:

  • Persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, and hopelessness
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed
  • Fatigue and decreased energy levels
  • Sleep disturbances (insomnia or hypersomnia)
  • Appetite or weight changes (overeating or loss of appetite)
  • Difficulty concentrating, making decisions, or remembering things
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or excessive self-blame
  • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide

Causes of Depression:

  • Biological factors: Genetic predisposition, imbalances in brain chemicals (neurotransmitters)
  • Environmental factors: Stressful life events, trauma, abuse, or neglect
  • Psychological factors: Low self-esteem, pessimistic thinking patterns, or a history of mental health disorders

Prevention of Depression:

  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Regular exercise, balanced diet, adequate sleep
  • Build a strong support system: Cultivate relationships with loved ones and friends
  • Manage stress: Practice relaxation techniques, engage in hobbies, and seek therapy
  • Early intervention: Seek help from mental health professionals for timely support

Good Foods of Depression:

  • Omega-3 fatty acids: Fatty fish (salmon, mackerel), flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts
  • Foods high in B vitamins: Leafy greens, whole grains, eggs, legumes
  • Antioxidant-rich foods: Berries, dark chocolate, green tea


  • Psychotherapy: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Interpersonal Therapy (IPT), or Psychodynamic Therapy
  • Medications: Antidepressant medications (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, etc.) prescribed by a psychiatrist
  • Brain stimulation therapies: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
  • Lifestyle changes: Regular exercise, stress management techniques, self-care practices

Depression: Symptoms, causes and treatments


  • Never attempt self-treatment; seek professional help from mental health experts.
  • Follow medication instructions and consult the doctor for any concerns or side effects.
  • Reach out for support from friends, family, or helplines in times of distress.
  • If experiencing suicidal thoughts, contact emergency services or a helpline immediately.

Remember, you are not alone in this journey. Reach out to professionals and loved ones for support. While it may be challenging now, there is hope for a brighter future. Take it one step at a time, be patient with yourself, and remember that healing is possible. Your strength and resilience will guide you through this.

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